After Cheops came Khephren (2020 BC.) and built the second pyramid on Giza Plateau which from one spot appears higher than the Cheops pyramid, but this is due to it being built over a higher plateau.
The causeway and tomb entrances were always protected by double sphinxes flanking the entrance. Consequently, there is a great chance that there was, or is, another sphinx parallel to the one which exists today, only in very poor condition due to air pollution and underground water erosion.
I here offer my humble theory that there is a second sphinx, located on the other side of the causeway.
On the internet, a radar image of the Giza plateau was downloaded which benefits the Second Theory. The process was named SIR-C/X-SAR imagery works by NASA. Simply stated, it is a colored analysis of the different geological layers of the Giza Plateau and its constructions, those layers which are toward the Southside of the existing sphinx across the causeway, reflect a yellow signal indicating the existence of a structure. This radar signal is normally received in the form of pulses at particular microwave wavelengths in the range of I cm to I m, which in turn corresponds to a frequency range of about 300 MHz to 30 GHz and polarizations. The echoes are converted to a digital data which then is displayed as an image. This image is composed of many dots or elements of a picture, each represents the radar back scatter for a particular area on the ground. In our case it is the remaining of the "Second Sphinx."
I firmly believe its existence is conspicuous beyond the shadow of a doubt. I believe it lies buried under the sand, its suffocated and dilapidated remains not rivaling the state of preservation of the existing sphinx. Perhaps it was not buried throughout time as the existing one, which aided in its destruction. If we were to calculate its measurements, aided by newly excavated ruins, we should find it to be 66 feet high, 240 feet long, the mouth 7 feet 7 inches, the ears 4 feet 6 inches and the nose 5 feet 7 inches. Exactly the same typical measurements of the existing sphinx. The second sphinx is mind boggling in its simplicity and common sense.
I here offer you the research that aided in the discovery of this new theory:
In the Egyptian Museum there is a stela called the "Inventory Stela", which proves that Cheops saw the sphinx and it also mentions that lightening struck the tail of the nemes headdress of the sphinx and destroyed it. To the south the lightening also burnt a sycamore tree. The area between the sphinx and the tree is empty today (I believe this is where a second sphinx lays buried), it could have also been struck by the same lightening causing it great destruction.
Horus sphinxes at Edfu.
The scene symbol of the word "Hill" or mound and/or pyramidal shaped construction is or . According to the ancient Egyptian cult which rose up from Heliopolis (a suburb in northern Cairo today), the god of creation commenced his deeds from this spot. The Priests of the chief temple of the sun wrote the basic text which all religious texts came to depend upon. Pyramid texts, sacred utterances and religious doctrines were al developed from the concept of creation. The complete one, "Atum" (the high god) rose up as a high hill like the solar disk. In utterance 600 it says, "O Atum, when you came into being you rose up as a high hill, you shown as the ben ben stone in the temple of the phoenix in Heliopolis." The primeval mound (the mound of the first time) took many forms and shapes, for example, and that is the shape of the so-called "Mastabah tomb" , also which is the shape of the step pyramid or any pyramid before it is outer cased with a smooth layer.
If we return to the Heliopolitan cut, the first two gods that Atum created were Shu and Tefnut. They were in the form of two lion cubs. Atum the sun enriched the scene with his light as before he rose up from the waters of the primordial ocean (called Nun) there was nothing, there was darkness. So yesterday was darkness. By creating the two lions, Atum became "one lion and two lions". He became identified with the protective force that the lion represents. Equally the two lions became associated with the sun the strong fierce burning power that it is. This makes sense from a practical point, as astronomy, the zodiac sign, "LEO" always dominates in the summer when Atum, the sun, is in his best form, able and burning. Also, it is the time of the flooding of the Nile and from here came the relationship between the lion and fertility. In one sentence when the lion appears in the sky (as Leo) the black land will be visited by the water of the flooding to fertilize the green land.(symbolically , it is the resurrection of the dry land. once the sun sets it begins its journey of the under world , the voyage from west to east. This is brought about by the two lions, the one on the west holds the sun between his jaws and passes it to the second lion situated in the east who pushes it to the sunrise. The rebirth of the sun needed essentially two lions to accomplish the mighty divine reappearance . They were called yesterday and today . Ancient Egyptian artisans and priests always drew and depicted them guarding the two primeval mounds connected with each other forming the sign of Aket fig7.gif (1205 bytes) which with the sun in the middle forms the hieroglyphic word for "horizon" . That is where the shrine of the GOD was situated . The sun between the two lions flanking the two hills are yesterday and today waiting to transport the sun with their jaws from the west to east . They were also responsible for guarding the eastern and western boundaries. .The sun is heading toward the edge of the world was the same sign in hieroglyphics fig1 which if repeated on the other side fig7 forms the Akh horizon scene . If we assemble all the previously mentioned information and correlate it with the historical topographical scene of the Giza Plateau, we will find a wonderful surprise . A surprise , who's positive fascination with the truth I hate being away from . If you stand today facing the sphinx there are behind it the three pyramids of ,(from right to left ), khufu (Cheops), KHA-F-RA (Chephren), Min-kaw-ra (Mycerinus) you will be able, with no difficulty to identify the following:
Two hills or pyramidal shaped constructions, similar in height and size and connected by a land valley. So it must be the two pyramids of khufu and kha-f-ra , as the height of khufu is 146 meters while kha-f-ra is 143,5 meters high, almost identical in height . If we measure the side of these two pyramids we find Khufu to be 230 meters and Kha-f-ra is 214.5 meters. Bearing in mind the weathering and erosion, these two pyramids could easily, from a distance be alike in everything including size . Respecting the fact that you cannot appreciate the similarity and resemblance unless from a distance. The perfect spot for this is facing the existing sphinx.
A bird s eye view of the second pyramid complex will confirm that the causeway coming from the mortuary temple to the valley temple had to diverge its path to the south to avoid the already existing sphinx. The causeway ends in the valley temple, opening into its north side, not into its middle, as usual. The workers were trying to avoid another sacred untouchable statue on the south side, which is the vanished sphinx. If we consider the sphinx temple and the valley temple. We can deduct that both temples are similar in design, height, square weathering, erosion and time destruction. This suggests that it was one temple dedicated to the belief of the Horizon, the shrine of the God. When the vestibule came, it divided it into two equal temples, each one dedicated to one lion of Ruti, which is according to Ani's papyrus, meaning yesterday and today. Bear in mind that the pink granite which walled up some parts of the valley temple took place later in time, decades after the temple construction. This fact is proven beyond a shadow of a doubt when you notice how the granite is embedded in the cavities caused by time and weathering. So, if there are two mounds, two temples denoting the two boundary edges of the world on the east and west and two shrines of the god (sphinx temple) and one temple is protested by a recumbent lion sphinx, why then is the second shrine of the god (valley temple) not protected and guarded by having a sphinx behind it? Why ? Remember Atum, the sun appears between the two pyramids on a certain day with a certain angle. The "Aker" scene depends, in addition to its religious connotation, on its artistic harmony and a very symmetrical nature. If you draw a line in the middle, it works like a mirror reflection. "Aker" is often depicted as two lions bodies with human heads (similar to the head of the sphinx) opposite each other or with lion heads which is what I think the sphinx was before it was re-carved into the head of a pharaoh. This would explain why the human head of the sphinx is small in comparison to the body of the lion. Ancient Egyptians never would fall into such a native mistake of ratio and proportion. I believe it was harmonically correct with the body size originally and later carved into the head of a human (the pharaoh).
Religious texts say, "Hail, Atum I am the double lion." , Also "The accustomed offering cake is still yours, O Atum and double lion! You two that have created your own divine selves and powers! This is Shu and Tefnut, the pair who engendered the gods and put them in their proper places". The double lion is a manifestation of Shu and Tefnut. There are, I believe, two sphinxes of Giza, one on each side of the causeway.
The ancient Egyptians never protected one entrance, or any sacred temple or tomb, from one side only. That would be against:
The common sense of the idea of protection.
The double lion theory of RUTI
One side of the shrine of Atum would be exposed to danger.
The two lions who are symbolic of yesterday and today protecting the pyramid.
If only one exists that means that the time is not complete. If there is only today and there is no yesterday the cult is incomplete. How would he explain the emergence of Atum from the primeval ocean of Nun in the time of yesterday? Yesterday was dark and when Atum came he brought light, if there was no darkness (one lion only) then how can light be appreciated, also, how would we appreciate Atum himself in the cult if he came with no positive impressive entry. Simply, if there was no yesterday then today is like any day, not highly special. Moreover, the two lions in the collection of the "spells of coming forth by day," Reu Nu pert em-hru" which was wrongly interpreted by Richard Lepsius in 1842, when he published the Turin Papyrus and gave it the name "The Book Of The Dead", are symbolic of Osiris and Ra and sometimes Atum. The absence of one of them spells chaos, crisis and a great disorder. "Mine is yesterday, I know tomorrow".
If the sun critically needs two lions to take it from the west to east, and as our present day sphinx sits exactly in the border line between the desert (no life) and vegetation (life), then how will the journey of the eternal rebirth of the sun be completed and unmistakably accomplished if there is only one lion? who will take care of its transportation from the west to the aim?. Reaching the target of the resurrection of the sun is impossible, unless there are two lions.
The two sides, profile lions flanking the "Aket" horizon are the two sphinxes behind the sphinx temple symbolizing the western boundary and the valley temple symbolizing the eastern boundary, where the sun will be resurrected just as the land turns green in the valley due to the rich Nile flooding. The ancient Egyptian artists believed in the profile and seldom used the full face. So, if we full face the two lions of the scene, illustrating the theory, you will see exactly two lions flanking the causeway dividing the one temple into two for the cut purposes. In the background two pyramids, Kha-f-re's pyramid base is carved from the bed rock to give us the scene of the primeval mound then the solar disk comes between to complete the immaculate the scene of the "Reu No pert emhru", "Spells of the coming forth by day" which was we know depends on the coffin texts which in turn came originally from the pyramid texts. If you notice in ancient Egyptian art, it always depends on the harmony between the ratio and the proportion of the scene. The forms must be symmetrical. The final result which is produced after a great effort and combining forces of the priests to select a special text, the artist in development of the accompanying scene to fit it must be harmonious. In the case of repetition it means multiplicity. For example, if there is Isis as a falcon on one side of the scene, parallel to it, equal in size and perfectly similar but for the head crown which distinguishes between one deity and the other, is the second Isis. In sculpture, always a double dogma dominated the religious construction. The double avenue of ram headed sphinxes of Ramses II in Karnak or that of the human headed sphinxes of Necta Nebo in Luxor temple. Two seated statues flank the entrances of temple. One side is always equal to the other. Thus, far no excavation has shown us otherwise.
Sculpture reached its apex during Khephren's reign, when the best example of an idealistic royal statue came to light. Khephren's statue is composed of black diorite (hieroglyphic: meant coming from the quarries of Tushqa) veined with white and it was found in the temple if his pyramid . The clear-cut features, and square shoulders are complemented by the eyes gazing into eternity. The statue is wearing the Nemes,the royal headdress, and shendid, the royal apron and the royal false beared. There are two lions flanking the king's legs. On both sides of the throne there are representations of the union of Upper and lower Egypt, the binding of the lotus and Papyrus (this was called Sematawy).
The cartouch of khephren is clear Ka-f-Ra. The neck of the statue is reinforced with a statue of Horus, the Falcon God, also completing the holy triad, the throne, the pharaoh and the God. This triad enabled us to learn about Egyptian Mythology. In the Heliopolis cult there were nine Gods and Goddesses. They were Atum, creator of the universe, Shu the god of air, Tefnut geb the earth god, Nut the sky goddess, Osiris, Isis, Set and Nyphtyes.. They imagined that in the beginning the universe was filed with a primordial ocean called Nun, which had no surface, its waters were motionless and stagnant. The priests claimed that their temple stood on the site of this primeval ocean over a hill rising out of Nun. The golden age for this Universe was when the gods actually lived on earth and had their kingdom there, where justice reigned over the land and was now maintained by their successor and pharaoh.
In addition to all the proofs I offered in my second Sphinx theory, I add , here the stela of the dream erected between the two paws of the lion part of the existing Sphinx. At the top register we found Tutmosis IV is depicted twice offering to two Sphinxes. This is not one scene repeated in a mirror reflecting impression like other various scenery. The reasons why I believe that Pharaoh here is offering to two sphinxes are:
He is wearing different crowns one is the "Kheprish" blue crown of war and courage, in the other scene he is wearing the "Nemes" royal headdress. So, he is in two different social status assured by 2 different royal regalia.
He is offering two different sets of libations and homage in each scene. Tutmosis IV is treating each Sphinx separately and not in the same manner.
We conclude that the Egyptian history is still offering us more challenges. Egypt is the future of the past.
By its original author Bassam El Shammaa
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